The History of Big Data

Always interested in news and articles about Big Data I ran into the an article about the history of Big Data you simply don't want to miss.

It’s a quite interesting time line which will explain as well that actually Big Data has always been around in the world.

C 18,000 BCE

The earliest examples we have of humans storing and analyzing data are the tally sticks. The Ishango Bone was discovered in 1960 in what is now Uganda and is thought to be one of the earliest pieces of evidence of prehistoric data storage. Palaeolithic tribespeople would mark notches into sticks or bones, to keep track of trading activity or supplies. They would compare sticks and notches to carry out rudimentary calculations, enabling them to make predictions such as how long their food supplies would last.

C 2400 BCE

The abacus – the first dedicated device constructed specifically for performing calculations – comes into use in Babylon. The first libraries also appeared around this time, representing our first attempts at mass data storage.

300 BC - 48 AD

The Library of Alexandria is perhaps the largest collection of data in the ancient world, housing up to perhaps half a million scrolls and covering everything we had learned so far, about pretty much everything. Unfortunately, in 48AD it is thought to have been destroyed by the invading Romans, perhaps accidentally. Contrary to common myth, not everything was lost – significant parts of the library’s collections were moved to other buildings in the city, or stolen and dispersed throughout the ancient world.

C 100 – 200 AD

The Antikythera Mechanism, the earliest discovered mechanical computer, is produced, presumably by Greek scientists. It’s “CPU” consists of 30 interlocking bronze gears and it is thought to have been designed for astrological purposes and tracking the cycle of Olympic Games. Its design suggests it is probably an evolution of an earlier device – but these so far remain undiscovered.

The Emergence of Statistics

1663

In London, John Graunt carries out the first recorded experiment in statistical data analysis. By recording information about mortality, he theorized that he can design an early warning system for the bubonic plague ravaging Europe.

1865

The term “business intelligence” is used by Richard Millar Devens in his Encyclopaedia of Commercial and Business Anecdotes, describing how the banker Henry Furnese achieved an advantage over competitors by collecting and analyzing information relevant to his business activities in a structured manner. This is thought to be the first study of a business putting data analysis to use for commercial purposes.

1880

The US Census Bureau has a problem – it estimates that it will take it 8 years to crunch all the data collected in the 1880 census, and it is predicted that the data generated by the 1890 census will take over 10 years, meaning it will not even be ready to look at until it is outdated by the 1900 census. In 1881 a young engineer employed by the bureau – Herman Hollerith – produces what will become known as the Hollerith Tabulating Machine. Using punch cards, he reduces 10 years’ work to three months and achieves his place in history as the father of modern automated computation. The company he founds will go on to become known as IBM.

The Early Days of Modern Data Storage

1926

Interviewed by Colliers magazine, inventor Nikola Tesla states that when wireless technology is “perfectly applied the whole Earth will be converted into a huge brain, which in fact it is, all things being particles of a real and rhythmic whole … and the instruments through which we shall be able to do this will be amazingly simple compared to our present telephone. A man will be able to carry one in his vest pocket.”

1928

Fritz Pfleumer, a German-Austrian engineer, invents a method of storing information magnetically on tape. The principles he develops are still in use today, with the vast majority of digital data being stored magnetically on computer hard disks.

 

1944

Fremont Rider, librarian at Wesleyan University, Connecticut, US, published a paper titled The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library.

In one of the earliest attempts to quantify the amount of information being produced, he observes that in order to store all the academic and popular works of value being produced, American libraries would have to double their capacity every 16 years. This led him to speculate that the Yale Library, by 2040, will contain 200 million books spread over 6,000 miles of shelves.

The Beginnings of Business Intelligence

1958

IBM researcher Hans Peter Luhn defines Business Intelligence as “the ability to apprehend the interrelationships of presented facts in such a way as to guide action towards a desired goal.”

1962

The first steps are taken towards speech recognition, when IBM engineer William C Dersch presents the Shoebox Machine at the 1962 World Fair. It can interpret numbers and sixteen words spoken in the English language into digital information.

1964

An article in the New Statesman refers to the difficulty in managing the increasing amount of information becoming available.

The Start of Large Data Centers

1965

The US Government plans the world’s first data center to store 742 million tax returns and 175 million sets of fingerprints on magnetic tape.

1970

IBM mathematician Edgar F Codd presents his framework for a “relational database”. The model provides the framework that many modern data services use today, to store information in a hierarchical format, which can be accessed by anyone who knows what they are looking for. Prior to this accessing data from a computer’s memory banks usually required an expert.

1976

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) systems are becoming more commonly used across the business world, representing one of the first mainstream commercial uses of computers to speed up everyday processes and make efficiencies. Until now, most people have probably only seen them in research and development or academic settings.

1989

Possibly the first use of the term Big Data (without capitalization) in the way it is used today. International best-selling author Erik Larson pens an article for Harpers Magazine speculating on the origin of the junk mail he receives. He writes: “The keepers of big data say they are doing it for the consumer’s benefit. But data have a way of being used for purposes other originally intended.”

Additionally “business intelligence” – already a popular concept since the late 50s – sees a surge in popularity with newly emerging software and systems for analyzing commercial and operational performance.

The Internet Kicks Into Gear

1991

Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee announced the birth of what would become the World Wide Web as we know it today. In a post in the Usenet group alt.hypertext he sets out the specifications for a worldwide, interconnected web of data, accessible to anyone from anywhere.

1996

According to R J T Morris and B J Truskowski in their 2003 book The Evolution of Storage Systems, this is the point where digital storage became more cost effective than paper.

1997

Michael Lesk publishes his paper How Much Information is there in the World? Theorizing that the existence of 12,000 petabytes is “perhaps not an unreasonable guess”. He also points out that even at this early point in its development, the web is increasing in size 10-fold each year. Much of this data, he points out, will never be seen by anyone and therefore yield no insight.

Google Search also debuts this year – and for the next 20 years (at least) its name will become shorthand for searching the internet for data.

Early Ideas of Big Data

1999

A couple of years later and the term Big Data appears in Visually Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Real Time, published by the Association for Computing Machinery. Again the propensity for storing large amounts of data with no way of adequately analyzing it is lamented. The paper goes on to quote computing pioneer Richard W Hamming as saying: “The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.”

Also possibly first use of the term “Internet of Things”, to describe the growing number of devices online and the potential for them to communicate with each other, often without a human “middle man”. The term is used as the title of a presentation given to Procter and Gamble by RFID pioneer Kevin Ashton.

2000

In How Much Information? Peter Lyman and Hal Varian (now chief economist at Google) attempted to quantify the amount of digital information in the world, and its rate of growth, for the first time. They concluded: “The world’s total yearly production of print, film, optical and magnetic content would require roughly 1.5 billion gigabytes of storage. This is the equivalent of 250 megabytes per person for each man, woman and child on Earth.”

2001

In his paper 3D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity and Variety Doug Laney, analyst at Gartner, defines three of what will come to be the commonly-accepted characteristics of Big Data.

This year also see the first use of the term “software as a service” – a concept fundamental to many of the cloud-based applications which are industry-standard today – in the article Strategic Backgrounder: Software as a Service by the Software and Information Industry Association.

Web 2.0 Increases Data Volumes

2005

Commentators announce that we are witnessing the birth of “Web 2.0” – the user-generated web where the majority of content will be provided by users of services, rather than the service providers themselves. This is achieved through integration of traditional HTML-style web pages with vast back-end databases built on SQL. 5.5 million people are already using Facebook, launched a year earlier, to upload and share their own data with friends.

This year also sees the creation of Hadoop – the open source framework created specifically for storage and analysis of Big Data sets. Its flexibility makes it particularly useful for managing the unstructured data (voice, video, raw text etc) which we are increasingly generating and collecting.

Today’s Use of the Term ‘Big Data’ Emerges

2007

Wired brings the concept of Big Data to the masses with their article The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Model Obsolete.

2008

The world’s servers process 9.57 zettabytes (9.57 trillion gigabytes) of information – equivalent to 12 gigabytes of information per person, per day), according to the How Much Information? 2010 report. In International Production and Dissemination of Information, it is estimated that 14.7 exabytes of new information are produced this year.

2009

The average US company with over 1,000 employees is storing more than 200 terabytes of data according to the report Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition and Productivity by McKinsey Global Institute.

2010

Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Google, tells a conference that as much data is now being created every two days, as was created from the beginning of human civilization to the year 2003.

2011

The McKinsey report states that by 2018 the US will face a shortfall of between 140,000 and 190,000 professional data scientists, and states that issues including privacy, security and intellectual property will have to be resolved before the full value of Big Data will be realised.

2014

The rise of the mobile machines – as for the first time, more people are using mobile devices to access digital data, than office or home computers. 88% of business executives surveyed by GE working with Accenture report that big data analytics is a top priority for their business.

Final Thought

What this teaches us is that Big Data is not a new or isolated phenomenon, but one that is part of a long evolution of capturing and using data. Like other key developments in data storage, data processing and the Internet, Big Data is just a further step that will bring change to the way we run business and society. At the same time it will lay the foundations on which many evolutions will be built.

 

Quite interesting isn’t it?

If you do want to know more what exactly Big Data can mean for your company simply sent an email to bigdata@ave.lu and we will be more than happy to explain how we could help you and your business.

Cheers,

Frits Steketee

 

Source: Bernard Marr

Posted by Frits Steketee Wednesday, July 27, 2016 4:16:00 PM

Comments

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Norma Jeane dit&nbsp

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Le Proactol vient so

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fred dit&nbsp;:salut

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... Yes, Caucasia

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Thursday, October 20, 2016 8:58:37 PM

It was a symbol, its

It was a symbol, its gone. The catholic Basilica was beautiful too but much used by the faithful. So was the second temple in Jerusalem, beautiful but not a patch on Solomon's but both went the same way. God is more into reality than symbols is the lesson here. There's more merit in housing people than trying to inspire them with high vaults and stained glass.George
Thursday, October 20, 2016 10:00:38 PM

Good points all arou

Good points all around. Truly appreciated.
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:17:47 AM

You know I had to in

You know I had to include something edible in this roundup. These Witches Brooms found over at Around My Family Table look too good to eat…almost! You know you’re gonna
Friday, October 21, 2016 2:05:11 AM

This is an unbearabl

This is an unbearable turn of events. Just when you think it can't get any worse, it gets worse. And then you are forced to say to yourself, "Damn, I was wrong, it got worse." Because you were wrong; that is the way this world works these day...things keep getting worse. Well, that's my take on the subject of your post.
Friday, October 21, 2016 4:42:57 AM

The honesty of your

The honesty of your posting is there for all to see
Friday, October 21, 2016 4:49:23 AM

très bien dit Nanou

très bien dit Nanou…j’attends toujours ma commande..loll c’est en préparation..en attendant, je travaille mes attitudes aussi..parce que quand je rencontrerai l’homme de ma vie..je voudrais ne pas être menée par des doutes (habituels) je dois me sentir neuve..(on ne sait jamais si mon double a fait une commande de femme sereine..faut que je sois au point..) bisou et bonne continuation
Friday, October 21, 2016 6:18:41 AM

la prison e st un li

la prison e st un lieu de vacance pour eux, les peines de deux ans (exemple) doivent être de deux ans pas de trois mois par ci en moins c’est honteux! s’il faut construire construisez.bravo pour votre article!
Friday, October 21, 2016 6:35:36 AM

A pretty amazing art

A pretty amazing article by Dr. Paul Craig Roberts! I wonder how many Americans know and understand that this nation has committed a raft of crimes under international law. I also wonder how many care.
Friday, October 21, 2016 7:08:39 AM

So that's the case?

So that's the case? Quite a revelation that is.
Friday, October 21, 2016 7:46:10 AM

By non-violent games

By non-violent games do we mean games in which no violence is present, or games in which the player is not allowed or not expected to be violent?In the Myst series, for example, the player is completely non-violent, but mild violence is present in the games, and evidence of much more extreme violence is common.
Friday, October 21, 2016 9:04:12 AM

I will immediately s

I will immediately snatch your rss feed as I can not to find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please permit me understand in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.
Friday, October 21, 2016 9:49:59 AM

That's a knowing ans

That's a knowing answer to a difficult question
Friday, October 21, 2016 9:52:41 AM

!!!ay qe orgullosa m

!!!ay qe orgullosa me siento!!!con esto, con lo dijo el estupido de Amador Narcia de qe las camionetes en Nicaragua no son de TELERISA (qe me tenia priocupada y avergonsada) y con lo de que México asume la presidencia del concejo permanente de la OEA¡¡¡ya me isieron el dia!!!BOLA DE JIJOSDE LA CHINGADA
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:00:20 PM

Good point. I hadn't

Good point. I hadn't thought about it quite that way. :)
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:06:42 PM

The new annotation o

The new annotation option is very annoying. There should be an option in the account settings to permanently turn that off because I have to click Switch Off every time I view one of my videos.
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:29:22 PM

It&#8217;s a tricky

It’s a tricky one, and I’m thinking I might not use the word “lifetime” but simply call it “InboxCleaner Access” or something lame like that – basically try and imply it’s the same as buying an app for your iPhone.
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:36:03 PM

- You&#8230;are&#823

- You…are…my…hero!!! I cant believe something like this exists on the internet! Its so true, so honest, and more than that you dont sound like an idiot! Finally, someone who knows how to talk about a subject without sounding like a kid who didnt get that bike he wanted for Christmas.
Friday, October 21, 2016 12:57:50 PM

Pués yo tengo un si

Pués yo tengo un sitio web multilingüe (45 idiomas y países, los idioams se pueden repetir) y el problema es que Google me rastrea la web principal casí todos los días pero lleva más de un mes sin que me actualize al menos uno de los subdominios ccTLD. No se que le pasa.
Friday, October 21, 2016 1:25:11 PM

Josh, I&#8217;m not

Josh, I’m not sure why, but I don’t want to put it on the blog. Mainly, I think, because it is a long piece so doesn’t make sense in chunks! It is an idea though that I might have to rethink.
Friday, October 21, 2016 2:35:02 PM

I'm out of league he

I'm out of league here. Too much brain power on display!
Friday, October 21, 2016 2:40:07 PM

Well put, sir, well

Well put, sir, well put. I'll certainly make note of that.
Friday, October 21, 2016 2:57:27 PM

I&#039;ve been think

I've been thinking of you for a while, just sending as much love and happy thoughts as I can. I'm here if you need me and honestly, thinking of you so much I can't imagine you don't feel it xoxoxo [ .fqkj{position:absolute;clip:rect(445px,auto,auto,488px);}approval ]
Friday, October 21, 2016 3:58:21 PM

And to think I was g

And to think I was going to talk to someone in person about this.
Friday, October 21, 2016 4:08:09 PM

You've managed a fir

You've managed a first class post
Friday, October 21, 2016 4:25:00 PM

In general, right-wi

In general, right-wing implies a commitment to conservative Christian values, support for a free-market system, and “traditional family values”.There are better definitions than this. What do they have in common?A belief in doing things the right way, as honored by time and a history of results, instead of following whatever snake oil preacher has come to town with his vision of equality and peace.
Friday, October 21, 2016 5:01:34 PM

It's a pleasure to f

It's a pleasure to find someone who can identify the issues so clearly
Friday, October 21, 2016 5:07:28 PM

Mir gefällt die neu

Mir gefällt die neue Bloggeroberfläche überhaupt nicht. Langsam wechselt Blogger die alten "Sachen" aber aus. Die Profile z. B. sieht man nur noch im neuen Design.Die neue Bloggeroberfläche finde ich total unübersichtlich.LG Sabine
Saturday, October 22, 2016 3:24:59 AM

Police director Øys

Police director Øystein Mæland- 2012The police director answered questions at today's press conference after the presentation of the 22 July Commission.Mæland is a medical doctor, psychiatry, and was leader of Oslo AUF 1979–82. "Married" to a man, they have two surrogate children. Surrogacy is not according to Norwegian law.(Strangely, his voice and tone, is like a copy of Jonas Gahr Støre's, with the same arrogance. Who taught whom?)
Saturday, October 22, 2016 6:14:42 PM

I agree with you abo

I agree with you about the whole cult thing going on with blogging. As a teenage blogger, everyone expects me to be like a pastel sparkles feminist riot grrrl, and I am not. I don't idolize Tavi because I think, though she seems like a nice girl, I just want to be my own person.
Saturday, October 22, 2016 6:24:31 PM

O kas sako, kad taut

O kas sako, kad tauta – ne etnosas?Tik tau, sovietiniam istorikui, nedaeina, kad lietuvių tauta – ne kultÅ«ros neÅ¡iotojai – vartotojai, o tie, kurie iÅ¡laiko LietuvÄ….T.y. komandos, kuri vadinasi Lietuva, nariai – nežiÅ«rint kilmÄ—s, nes ir tas atvykÄ—lis, jei integruojasi, per laikÄ…, per kartas tampa lietuviu.Gali savo istoriko diplomÄ… kabinti ant vinies – nieko gero jis tau nedavÄ—.
Saturday, October 22, 2016 7:41:27 PM

MoonRiver dit&nbsp;:

MoonRiver dit :Bah dis donc, vous êtes drôlement fortes toutes les deux, vous me feriez presque acheter un truc que je trouvais hideux il y a encore deux minutes. Violette, cesse de m’laver le cerveau, il est propre te dis-je !
Saturday, October 22, 2016 8:19:50 PM

I really wish there

I really wish there were more articles like this on the web.
Saturday, October 22, 2016 8:28:55 PM

Tja Marie.Jag var pÃ

Tja Marie.Jag var på plats och såg matchen.Tycker synd om deras klack som inte får chans att sjunga pga all musik. På var 3e sittplats var det en liten present i form av 2 uppblåsbara plast rör man skulle klappa med, sorgligt. Vi var bättre på alla plan ikväll och det måste kännas jobbigt för dom att det är deras junisar som är bäst i deras lag igen. Skit samma vi mös iaf.
Saturday, October 22, 2016 10:12:45 PM

Great common sense h

Great common sense here. Wish I'd thought of that.
Saturday, October 22, 2016 11:34:22 PM

Shore 93a &#8220;wat

Shore 93a “water tomb” such as they have been trying was mostly for show. The recent documents that were released show that TEPCO and the japanese government new within days that melt downs at 1,2 & 3 were underway.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 12:52:43 AM

It really doesn&#821

It really doesn’t matter, just pick one randomly if you have to. But in general:Tepig – if you want an easier gameSnivy – if you like a challengeOshawott – normal game difficultySurprisingly, those who go with Snivy have less complaints about their choice later on in the game. While many people swear by Tepig, there are also a lot who ends up hating it. You may say that it’s because they don’t know how to raise it, but either way, the satisfaction rate is highest with Snivy and lowest with Tepig.  Missingno   -4Was this answer helpful?
Sunday, October 23, 2016 2:38:36 AM

Stucco, not a proble

Stucco, not a problem if done right.EIFS “stucco” = big problem, likely rotting, likely required teardown and re-siding.I walked away from an EIFS house after learning about EIFS, but bought a stucco one.SIL bought an EIFS and spent $75k tearing, repairing, and re-siding.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 2:51:10 AM

My battery&#8217;s a

My battery’s about to run out this bitch fucks everybody she is on almost every porn i got her shit is lose as hell by now Damn! That chick knows how to suck a dick. And she could fuck my ass with that orange dildo any time.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 4:56:25 AM

A diót egy picit ug

A diót egy picit ugyan elsokalltam, de a némi parmezántól tökéletes lett, de száritott reszelt gomba is jó, mert mindjkettőnek magas a glutamát tartalma, így kihozza az ízeket
Sunday, October 23, 2016 5:43:43 AM

Griot, Vamos convers

Griot, Vamos conversar com toda a turma amanhã sobre este projeto? Acho que este tipo de proposta, que nasce numa conversa do grupo, a gente tem que abraçar. Conta comigo!
Sunday, October 23, 2016 5:49:42 AM

« les élections ca

« les élections cantonales qui auront lieu les 20 et 27 mars (oui, dans deux semaines) »Eh ben, j’étais même pas au courant ! C’est dire…
Sunday, October 23, 2016 6:12:19 AM

This is what we need

This is what we need - an insight to make everyone think
Sunday, October 23, 2016 8:01:14 AM

This article went ah

This article went ahead and made my day.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 9:05:02 AM

- Kat, I&#8217;m blo

- Kat, I’m blown away. You are a master photographer and I absolutely love how you’ve told Libby and Jon’s story here. There are soooo many amazing moments captured in this set, but I have to say, the entire first look series just takes my heart melt. And then the first dance ones…sigh…
Sunday, October 23, 2016 10:03:48 AM

Do you have a spam i

Do you have a spam issue on this website; I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; many of us have created some nice methods and we are looking to exchange techniques with other folks, please shoot me an email if interested.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 10:39:53 AM

Angie you make a sim

Angie you make a simple salad looks so delicious. Goat cheese is a treat over here. Love it! Btw I have a gift award for you, pls do drop by to collect it at your convenience . Love your blog :) Thanks for sharing this wonderful salad recipe.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 11:10:49 AM

आहत कर म

आहत कर मुझे तुष्टि पाते होतुम अपने अहम् कीयह भी नायाब तरीका है तुम्हारामुझे अपने पास लाने की ।....waah.. bahut sahi chitran bhawon ke madhayam se ....adhiktar log aisa hi karte hain ....par khiseeyani billi khambha noche ye kyon bhul jaate hain?
Sunday, October 23, 2016 11:35:03 AM

Great stuff, you hel

Great stuff, you helped me out so much!
Sunday, October 23, 2016 11:52:23 AM

I don&#8217;t want t

I don’t want to criticise the book because I haven’t read it. I was just using the bad reviews it’s getting to share a fear about my own writing. Did you read the whole trilogy, or just the first book?
Sunday, October 23, 2016 12:18:23 PM

Visigordo,Obrigado p

Visigordo,Obrigado pela defesa aqui do pedaço.A caixa de comentários deste espaço também serve como registo para a posteridade. Tenho sempre grande dificuldade em exercer o papel de censor.Quanto à análise que fazes no segundo post, não tenho nada a acrescentar, a minha análise é semelhante.Obrigado mais 1 vez
Sunday, October 23, 2016 12:27:58 PM

Rassures toi ils son

Rassures toi ils sont en train de virer les 747 de leur flotte mais le retard du 380 n’aide pas…En attendant malgré toutes les « updates » c’est vrai qu’il commence à faire son age.
Sunday, October 23, 2016 1:32:04 PM

This site is like a

This site is like a classroom, except I don't hate it. lol
Sunday, October 23, 2016 2:52:57 PM

The honesty of your

The honesty of your posting shines through
Sunday, October 23, 2016 3:36:53 PM

People that are &#82

People that are “BRANDS”Calvin Klein- fashion, home, perfumeOprah – all media, star makerMichael Dell – computerArthur’s type of People that are Brands:Jeffery Dahmer- gay cannibalsCindy Brady – lisper hooked on PhonicsGN Dung- low level achieving Asians
Sunday, October 23, 2016 3:43:46 PM

That insight would h

That insight would have saved us a lot of effort early on.
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